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Carbohydrates – Our food stores
Carbohydrates always play an important role in people’s diet. They are used as a first-degree energizer and are the first nutrients consumed during fasting. The building blocks are glucose. They are stored in glycogen plants in animals as starch. Most carbohydrates are essential nutrients for living things. They occur as a result of photosynthesis in green plants. Herbivorous animals supply these needs from plants and carnivorous animals from herbivores. An average of 4 calories are released as a result of burning 1 g of carbohydrates in the body.
What are their duties?
Carbohydrates are essential nutrients that provide energy for most living things. They ensure that proteins are used in the body in making and repairing, metabolize fats, and when carbohydrates are not taken, the body has to use fats for energy. Carbohydrates are essential for nerve tissue and are the brain’s only source of energy. Some carbohydrates are involved in the formation of healthy bacteria that are necessary for digestion and are present in the intestines. Digestive system problems are seen in carbohydrate deficiency. Most carbohydrates are good sources of fiber. The fibers protect our body from heart diseases, cancer, diabetes and digestive problems.
What causes carbohydrate deficiency?
Primarily, B vitamins, some amino acids and fiber deficiency are seen. Besides, weakness, fatigue, depression, forgetfulness, nervous system disorders, digestive system disorders, decreased production and repair as a result of the protein not being used by the body, cancer and heart diseases may be seen in the long term due to insufficient fiber intake.
What are the types:
In a balanced diet, 50 percent or 60 percent of total calories come from carbohydrates. There are two basic types of carbohydrates: one is simple carbohydrates and the other is complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are sugar, corn sugar, milk sugar and granulated sugar found in honey and fruit. They are very easily digested and quickly get into the blood and raise blood sugar rapidly and can also cause it to drop rapidly. This can cause people to feel hungry quickly and feel less saturated. Thus, it may be desired to eat again. All desserts, soft drinks, chocolate, cookies, cakes, biscuits and pastries contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates.
Complex carbohydrates are the type of carbohydrates found in cereals, bread, some fruits, vegetables, legumes. They are found in many complex carbohydrates, vitamins, fiber and foods with high nutritional value. Complex carbohydrates are not refined, that is, their fibers are not separated. For this reason, they are healthier. Fiber foods consume more metabolic energy during digestion. Since their digestion takes longer, they do not raise blood sugar very quickly. They help keep the sugar level in the blood constant. They prevent many diseases due to their fiber content. They are also more useful for the digestive system.
The amount of carbohydrates to be taken in a day:
The metabolism rate of the people changes according to age, gender, activity level and weight. The calories to be taken are determined according to the metabolic rate. On average, 50% of this calorie should be obtained from carbohydrates, 15% from proteins and 30% from fats. 1100 kilocalories of energy taken by an individual with a metabolic rate of 2000 kcal must come from carbohydrates. After determining the amount of carbohydrates, the decision should be made based on the glycemic index and load for the genus. For example, the rice pilaf has a glycemic index of 139 and a glycemic load of 59. However, the glycemic index of the bulgur pilaf is 48 and the glycemic load is 12. These two foods are actually close to calories. Content becomes more important than calories. Foods with low glycemic index and low burden keep full and help to lose weight.
What are carbohydrate foods?
It contains corn flakes, cereal and bread varieties, rice, barley, oats, pasta, apricots, dates, bananas, figs, grapes, oranges, pears, pineapples, watermelons and dried grape. Legume species; chickpeas, dried beans, black eyed peas, broad beans carry high complex carbohydrates. Some root vegetables, potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, corn are also included in this group. Granulated sugar, confectionery, cake, corn syrup, juice, bread, pasta made of white flour and cornflakes are classified as simple carbohydrate foods. Foods that carry high amounts of complex carbohydrates are bran, oats, corn, barley, buckwheat, corn flour, pasta, potatoes, whole wheat rice, minced wheat, whole grain cereal, peas, musli, beans, lentils. High-carbohydrate foods provide us with an adequate source of vitamins, minerals and fiber to be healthy and fit.